RSS
 

Main Idea

27 Jan

     

Floating Houses
in Banyuwangi

Perlukah mengetahui main idea dari teks wacana yang sedang kita baca? Tentu saja hal ini sangat diperlukan. Dengan mengetahui main idea , kalian jadi tahu inti informasi yang dituangkan oleh penulis secara umum dalam tulisannya. Ketrampilan menentukan main idea sebuah wacana atau paragraph  juga sangat diperlukan ketika  kalian menghadapi tes Reading Comprehension.   

Berikut ini beberapa jenis pertanyaan dalam reading comprehension yang  menanyakan pikiran utama .

-          What is the main idea of the second  paragraph?

-          What is mainly discussed in the second paragraph?

-          The text mainly tells us about…

-          The topic of the text is…

-          What is the topic of the paragraph?

-          What is the text about?

-          What is the best title for the text?

-          What is the subject of the passage?

Jenis  pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut diatas  dapat diatasi dengan  previewing  dengan maksud  untuk mendapatkan gambaran secara umum dari isi wacana.

Caranya?

 a. bacalah judul wacana tersebut jika ada.

b. baca kalimat awal  dan /atau  akhir setiap  paragraph dan simpulkan.

 

Kenapa kalimat awal dan bukan kalimat kedua ,ketiga,keempat dan seterusnya? Hal ini dikarenakan pikiran utama sering  terdapat pada awal atau akhir suatu paragraph. Walaupun bisa juga muncul ditengah-tengah paragraph atau bahkan muncul secara implisit. Kalimat kedua,ketiga dan seterusnya hanyalah merupakan kalimat pendukung ( supporting sentences ) yang menjelaskan tentang pikiran utama( Main idea). Dengan menyimpulkan kalimat awal dan atau kalimat akhir paragraph, akan sangat membantu pembaca untuk mengetahui isi wacana secara umum.

 

 

How to identify main idea of a passage?

 

Bagaimana cara menemukan pikiran utama sebuah paragraph?

Seperti yang dikemukakan diatas bahwa main ideas bisa muncul pada  kalimat awal dan akhir. Lalu bagaimana caranya menemukan main ideas suatu wacana yang sedang kita baca?  Untuk bisa menemukan  pikiran utama suatu paragraph ,maka cari tahu : 

-           Informasi apakah yang paling umum dibicarakan dalam wacana tersebut?

-          Kalimat-kalimat mana saja yang menjadi kalimat pendukung  (suppoting ideas )?

-           Kalimat manakah  yang di jelaskan oleh kalimat-kalimat pendukung  tadi?  Terletak pada kalimat awal ataukah  kalimat akhir paragraph tersebut?

 

Mudah ,kan?  All right ! Kini saatnya kalian berlatih agar trampil mengenali main idea suatu wacana. Dengan banyak berlatih, kemampuan kalian mengidentifikasi main idea dalam suatu wacana akan semakin jitu.

 

Selamat Berlatih!  Good Luck!

 

 

Exercises.

Agar kalian makin trampil dalam menentukan main ideas suatu wacana, cobalah berlatih menentukan  mana main ideas yang tepat pada  wacana  berikut ini.

Text 1

        Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, the prosecution will prove to you that he is the accused. He had the motives, opportunity and ability to commit the crime and this will be shown in the evidence presented to you.          Firstly, the accused needed money. He was in debt, owing the bank over $100.000. He had no chance of repaying this: therefore, he needed quick money. That’s why he stole the Macquire Diamond.

          Secondly, the accused had the opportunity. As a security guard he could come and go from the exhibition of the diamond without causing suspicion. He had a plenty of time on the night of the robbery to take the diamond, hide it and then returned to his post before the next guard came on duty.

           Finally, the accused had the ability to take the Macquire Diamond. He had knowledge of the alarm system and had keys to unlock the display case. On this evidence you have no other choice but to find him guilty.

 

                                                     ooooOoo0        

       un 2014

What is the topic of the text?

A. Diamond robbery.

B. Eyewitness evidence.

C. Address to the jury.

D. Macquire Diamond.

E. Guilty security.

 

 

Text 2

The changes that our planet has undergone throughout its history are a result of natural factors like tiny changes in the Earth’s path around the Sun, volcanic activity and fluctuations within the climate system. However, humans are having an increasing influence on our climate by burning fossil fuels, cutting down rainforests and farming livestock. What is the Greenhouse Effect? As the Sun’s energy warms up the Earth, our planet radiates some of this heat back out towards space. Certain gases in the atmosphere act like the glass in a greenhouse, allowing the Sun’s energy in but preventing heat from escaping. Some greenhouse gases, such as water vapor – the most abundant greenhouse gas are naturally present in the atmosphere; without them, the Earth’s average temperature would be an unbearably cold -18″C instead of the 15″C it is today. However, human activities are releasing immense additional amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and this is enhancing the green- house effect.

Unas 2014

 

What is the topic of the text?

  1. Relation between human activities and ‘greenhouse effect’.
  2. ‘Greenhouse effect’ as a natural phenomenon.
  3. Greenhouse gases and ‘green house effect’.
  4. Definition of ‘greenhouse effect’.
  5. Causes of ‘greenhouse effect’

 

 

 Text 3

           Florence Nightingale was the pioneer of modern nursing. Born into a wealthy and well-connected British family in Florence, Italy, she was named after the city of her birth, as was her older sister born at Parthenope. A brilliant and strong-willed woman, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become an obedient wife. Inspired by what she understood to be a divine calling, Nightingale made a commitment to nursing, a career with a poor reputation and filled mostly by poorer women.           Traditionally, the role of nurse was handled by female “hanger—ons”· who followed the armies –they were equally like to function as cooks or prostitutes. Nightingale was particularly  concerned with the appalling conditions of medical care for the legions of the poor and indigent. She announced her decision to her family in1845, evoking intense anger and distress from her family, particularly her mother.

             Florence Nightingale’s career in nursing began in earnest in 1851 when she received four-month training in Germany as a deaconess of Kaiservverth. She undertook the training over strenuous family objections concerning the risks and social implications of such activity, and the Catholic foundations of the hospital. While at Kaiserwerth, Florence reported having her most important intense and compelling experience of her divine calling.

            Nightingale’s work inspired massive public support throughout England, where she was celebrated and admired as “The Lady of The Lamp” after the Grecian lamp she always carried in her tireless evening and nighttime visits to injured soldiers. Nightingale’s lamp also allowed her to work late every night, maintaining meticulous medical records for the hospital, and writing personal letters to the family of every 20 soldier who died in the hospital.

            ln 1883, Queen Victoria awarded Florence  the Royal Red Cross and in 1907 she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. She couldn’t leave her bed after 1896 and died on August 13, 1910.

Usm stan 2010/2011

 

What is the subject of the passage?

A. Florence Nightingale’s way of life.

B. Florence Nightingale’s story of life.

C. Florence Nightingale’s dream and desire.

D. Florence Nightingale’s spirit and courage.

 

 

 

Text 4

Indonesian wins 2-0, but failed short of Qualifying

 

Rizal Harahap


THE JAKARTA POST / PEKANBARU

Indonesian put in an impressive  performance in their 2-0 defeat of Singapore, but still failed to qualify f or the Next year’s AFC U-22 soccer championship. After finishing a third place at the  end of  The Group E matches in Pekanbaru, Riau On Sunday.

The two goals for the home side, which welcomed Coach Aji Santoso back the sidelines from a four matches suspension, both came in the second half from Agung Supriyanto.

He scored his first goal from the penalty  box before finding his second several minutes later. He beat a defender with a swift maneuver from the right flank and had the goalkeeper gasping as his thunderous goal blasted into far post.

The young Indonesian collected 9 points or just one point behind runner-up Australia, out of a six strong field of Competitors. Japan topped the standing  With a perfect collection 20-2 goal margin.

Singapore came in fourth with 7 points by Timor Leste with 3 points and Macau with no points.

In earlier matches in the day, favorite Japan continued their dominant form with A 5-0 drubbing of another tournament favorite Australia, while Timor Leste chalked up their first victory, a 4-1 over last placed- Macau.

 

                                                                                                                                         Un 2013

What is the main idea of paragraph 1?

  1. Indonesia failed to qualify next year’s AFC U-22 despite their winning over Singapore
  1. Indonesia and Singapore participated In the AFC U-22 in Pekanbaru, Riau
  2. Indonesia’s impressive performance has trounced Singapore by 2-0.
  3. Indonesia did not perform well but could defeat Singapore by 2-0
  4. Indonesia could defeat Singapore by

 

 

Text 5

 Dear Mr Jenkins 

I am writing to complain about my recent holydays in Sydney which was organized by your company. My wife and I selected a two-weeks Women Weekly Tour starting on 29 December. Your agency claimed we would be picked up at the airport and that the hotel was three-star quality. The all-inclusive price we paidincluded breakfast and dinner and two excursions

On arrival at the airport, there was no one to meet us. We were waiting for half an hour and then had no choice except to take a taxi. This cost $30. The receipt is enclosed.

The hotel was not what I would consider three-stars. The room was dirty: the beds were small and uncomfortable. The breakfast portions were very small, and the hotel refused to provide us with dinner. We had to spend some more $500 for extra meals. Again I enclose our restaurant receipts.

I found it dishonest and unacceptable that your company offered us a tour which doesn’t resemble the description; I expect to be compensated for all of my extra expenses. The receipts enclosed worth for a total of $530. In addition, we claim a refund of $100 because the room was not up to the promised standard.

We expect real action to be done very soon.

 

Yours sincerely

 

 Mr. Imron

 

 

The letter tells us about ….

A. the happy holiday in Sydney

B. the service’s reservation at the hotel

C. the satisfied services from the travel agency

D. the complaint of the travel service in Sydney

E. the impression of holidays in Sydney

 

 

 Text 6

Ecoture aims to show how important it is to protect the environment. It also wants to provide information about recyclable products that are of value,” said Kartika Nindya, Ecoture’s coordinator, on Sunday, as quoted by kompas.com.“At the end of today’s ceremonies, we will create petition to show the commitment for young people to become environmental heroes,” Nindya said.

Ecoture previously held a giveaway of 2,000 plants on March 25, during car-free day at Jl. Thamrin in Central Jakarta.

 

 What is the text about?

A. Plastic bottles.

B. Recyclable products.

C. A students’ flash mob.

D. Students’ ceremony.

E. Awareness of Environmental issues.

 

 

Text 7

During the past five years, the number of Americans killed annually in car accident has climbed to more than 55,000.This needless slaughter on streets and highways can be attributed to three general causes. (1) Mechanical failures, especially those related to faulty brakes and bad tires, account for significant number of fatal accidents. (2) Environmental conditions such as blind corners, narrow streets, heavy fogs, intermittent rain or snow resulting in slippery roads also contribute to grisly accident statistics. (3) But without doubt the most frequently reported factors in car accidents are errors of’ human judgment all the way from the follies as excessive speed and drunken driving to such momentary lapses as failure to signal a turn or a change form one lane to another. The man behind the wheel is often his own worst enemy. 

What is the main idea of the passage?           

  1. The number of American killed in the car accident
  2.  The worst enemy on the roads
  3. The three general causes of car accident
  4.  Statistics on car accident
  5. Findings on the increasing numbers of car accident

 

 

 Text 8

Many reasons causing languages to change can be illustrated by the following concepts. First, various language that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolated, independent  communities. The second major causes of language change is the influence of the interaction with foreign cultures, often as a result of military conquest. The third cause for change is rapidly expanding technology and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into closer contact, with borrowing between languages a common phenomenon in  the  contemporary world. All languages change as the experiences of their speakers change. 

What is the main information of the passage?

  1.  Three concepts illustrating why languages change
  2. The uniqueness of Languages
  3.  Experiences that lead language to change       
  4. Interaction with foreign cultures becoming the major cause language to change
  5. A common phenomenon of language change    

 

 

 

Text 9

            We all know that exercise is good for our bodies as well as for our brain. Just like any other muscle, the brain can get in shape, be strengthened and developed in use. We have understood how important the exercises for our body is but we  rarely think about  the exercises which help us to maintain our brain. These are some ways to maintain our valuable brain.           ‘The first simple thing we can do is don’t be isolated. Get involved in groups or social organizations, and participate in stimulating conversation that strengthens family and friendship. Make friends with people around us and get benefits from the conversation we made.

            Participating in regular physical activities can also a good to maintain our brain. We can just walk. ride a bicycle, dance, do aerobic exercises. Challenge your brain by challenging your body. Then learning something new will help us to maintain our brain. Try to take a class in something that interest you, read and write every duty, learn a second language. learn sign language, or learn to play a musical instrument.

            Playing games is another good alternative. There are many games around us: on magazines, in out cellphones, on television, in our computer, through internet and many other gadgets. We may choose to play board games or brain exercise-based videos games, do crossword puzzles or challenging word and number games. In addition, some activities can help to maintain the brain such as activities which stimulate the senses like travelling learning to relax with music, meditating, and, doing yoga or tai chi.

             The food we eat also has great effect on our brain. For this reason, we should feed our brain wisely. Eat more salmon. sardines, herring, walnuts and unsalted nuts, increase your  intake of vitamins C and E fruits and vegetables, decrease your intake of processed food and fast food; make it a priority to sit-down with others for at least one meal a day.

The last, don’t forget to get enough sleep. A well-rested brain it healthy brain.

 

 What is the topic of the text?

A. Some benefits of making conversation with others.

B. Some reasons of a good exercise for our bodies.

C. Some effects of healthy food for our brain.

D. Some ways to maintain our brain.

E. Some games stimulating the senses.

 

What is the main idea of paragraph 4?

A. Playing games is a challenging activity.

R. Games can be found on many kinds of gadgets.

C. Our brain needs activities which stimulate the senses.

D. Game provides good activities for the brain to exercise.

E. Not all games are good for our brain.

 

 

Text 10

The changes that our planet has undergone throughout its t history are a result of natural factors like tiny changes in the Earth’s path around the Sun, volcanic activity and fluctuations within the climate system. However, humans are having an increasing influence on our climate by burning fossil fuels, cutting down rainforests and farming livestock. What is the Greenhouse Effect? As the Sun’s energy warms up the Earth, our planet radiates some of this heat back out towards space. Certain gases in the atmosphere act like the glass in a greenhouse, allowing the Sun’s energy in but preventing heat from escaping. Some greenhouse gases, such as water vapor – the most abundant greenhouse gas are naturally present in the atmosphere; without them, the Earth’s average temperature would be an unbearably cold -18″C instead of the 15″C it is today. However, human activities are releasing immense additional amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and this is enhancing the green-house effect. 

What is the topic of the text?

A. Relation between human activities and ‘greenhouse effect’.

B. ‘Greenhouse effect’ as a natural phenomenon.

C. Greenhouse gases and ‘greenhouse effect’.

D. Definition of ‘greenhouse effect’.

E. Causes of ‘greenhouse effect’.

 

 

For more exercises, visit  http://inggrisonline.net/soal/

 

Semoga bermanfaat!

 
1 Comment

Posted in Articles

 

Tags: , , , ,

Leave a Reply

 

 
  1. equityworld futures

    7 November 2016 at 02.12

    Very nice info and straight to the point. I am not sure if this is actually the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers?

    Thx :)