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Jenis Teks

27 Dec

Genre

Berusaha mengenali berbagai macam jenis teks (genre)merupakan  hal yang sangat penting dalam memahami atau menghasilkan teks tulis maupun lisan. Untuk itu pertama-tama ,kamu perlu mengetahui isi,sistematika dan ciri-ciri leksikogramatika dari macam-macam teks tersebut. Banyaklah membaca berbagai jenis teks  sampai kamu benar-benar mengusainya. Ada beberapa jenis teks yang perlu kamu ketahui berikut ini :

1. Narrative Text

Pernahkah kamu membaca cerita-cerita berikut ini? Misalnya ,cerpen (short story), cerita legenda (legend)atau dongeng (folktale), cerita misteri (mystery), horror , petualangan (adventure), roman(romance) ,drama atau sinetron ,balada (ballad),mitos (myth), fable (fable). Itulah contoh-contoh cerita narrative. Nggak asing,kan?

So, teks naratif adalah cerita fiktif  atau  bersifat imajiner namun bisa juga bersifat faktual (kisah nyata/ berdasarkan fakta).

 

Tujuan dari teks Naratif  yaitu  untuk menghibur pembaca. Namun bisa juga untuk mendidik/mengajarkan sesuatu. Pembaca  dapat memperoleh moral value yang terkandung dalam teks narrative. (To entertain/ to amuse the readers)

Tense yang digunakan   Past Tense, karena berisi kisah kejadian di  masa lalu

 

Generic Structure :  Narative

Stuktur generik teks Narrative   terdiri dari:

 

Orientation

        Dalam paragrap pembuka ini, pengarang memperkenalkan pelaku atau tokoh-tokoh dalam cerita (WHO) , biasanya juga disebutkan kapan (WHEN) dan dimana (WHERE) ceritanya terjadi.

 

 

Complication

        Bagian ini mungkin berisi satu paragrap atau lebih  yang menceritakan  munculnya  problem yang membuat ceritanya semakin menarik . Secara kronologis masalahnya akan memuncak sampai klimak. Ketegangan terjadi dan tokoh utama harus berjuang menyelesaikan masalah.

 

 

Resolution

        Bagian ini menceritakan bagaimana masalah atau konfliknya terselesaikan.

Re-Orientation

-          Merupakan penutup cerita .

-          Coda ( Optional ). Bagian ini merupakan paragrap pendek yang berisi perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh serta  nilai moral yang terkandung dalam cerita tersebut.

 

Contoh teks Narrative

Text  1

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her aunt and uncle because her parents had died.

One day she heard her uncle and aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have money to take Snow White with them.

Snow White didn’t want her uncle and aunt to do this so she decided to run away. The next days he ran away from home when her aunt and uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. She was very tired and hungry. Then she saw a little cottage. She knocked but no one answered. So, she went inside and fell asleep.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Meanwhile Meanwhile the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. Doc, one of the dwarfs asked: “What is your name?” Snow White answered, “My name is Snow White.”

The dwarf said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh, could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story about her. Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Unas 2007

 

Text 2

A farmer came across a bird with a broken wing. He picked it up, took it home and looked after it lovingly, even though his wife complained bitterly about his wasting too much time on the creature.

After some time, the wing mended and, because the bird did not want the farmer to have kept on arguing with his wife all the time, it decided to go back to its nest.

When the farmer discovered that the bird was gone, he was so upset that he went out to look for it. Eventually, he found it again, and was greeted happily by the whole family of the bird. As a sign of their thanks for his care and attention, the birds gave him a little box, and told him not to open it until he got home.

To his surprise, the farmer found the box full of precious stones. When his wife saw them, she decided that she too deserved a reward, and she went to see the birds. The birds gave her a little casket; but this one was full of devils. The devils jumped on her as soon as she opened the casket and chased her away.

Left alone, the farmer went to live near his friend, the bird. There he built a hut of perfumed wood; and the birds decorated it with flowers of every kind.

                                                                                                                                                                                         Unas 2010

 2. Recount Text

Ngomongkan tentang liburan ke suatu tempat , atau pengalaman hidup yang pahit/ menyenangkan /lucu /menegangkan merupakan hal yang biasanya pernah temanmu atau kamu sharingkan bersama.Seringkali itu merupakan bahan obrolan yang mengasyikkan. Itulah Recount!

So, Teks Recount itu  merupakan cerita peristiwa atau pengalaman yang terjadi diwaktu yang lalu. Misalnya, pengalaman yang takterlupakan, pengalaman lucu, liburan,catatan kenangan di buku harian,laporan perjalanan, laporan polisi, penjelasan sejarah,cerita kehidupan seseorang, info tentang hujan yang terjadi minggu lalu,perjuangan para pahlawan, di masa lalu dan lain-lainnya.

Tense yang digunakan            : Past Tense, karena berisi informasi tentang aktivitas di waktu yang lalu. (Activities in the past time)

Tujuan teks Recount                : untuk memberi informasi  ( To inform readers about events of the day)

 

Generic structure: Recount

Stuktur generic teks Recount terdiri dari:

 

Orientation

        Dalam paragrap pembuka ini, pengarang memperkenalkan pelaku atau tokoh-tokoh yang terlibat dalam cerita (WHO) , biasanya juga disebutkan kapan (WHEN) dan dimana (WHERE) ceritanya terjadi

Events

        Menceriterakan apa yang terjadi secara kronologis

 

Re-Orientation

        Menceriterakan kesan-kesan, pendapat atau perasaan penulis akan pengalamananya

 

Contoh teks Recount

 

Text 1

Last week I took my five-year old son, Willy, to a musical instrument store in my hometown. I wanted to buy him a set of junior drum because his drum teacher advised me to buy him one. Willy likes listening to music very much. He also likes asking me everything he wants to know. Even his questions sometimes seem precocious for a boy of his age. He is very inquisitive.

We went there by car. On the way, we saw a policeman standing near a traffic light regulating the passing cars and other vehicles. He blew his whistle now and then.

Seeing the policeman blowing his whistle, Willy asked me at once, “Dad, why is the policeman using a whistle, not a drum?”

Hearing his unexpected question I answered reluctantly, “Because he is not Phil Collins!”

                                                                                                      Unas 2008

 

 

Text 2

I usually woke up at 8 a.m. and went to the press center to check the daily schedule of briefings and press conferences, usually held by the United Nations officials or disaster mitigation team chief, Alwi Shihab.

It was challenging to visit different refugee camps to find soft stories, human interest stories. Then, I went back to the press center in between to cover the press conferences of the day.

It was heart breaking when I saw these survivors fight for food and secondhand clothing, which they said were limited and inadequate. Emerging to a glaring, full noon, it was time to go back to the press center to write stories and race against time, always fearing that the internet connection would come crashing down.

And after everything was done, only then I remembered to eat. Most times, I only ate once a day because you always had to rush and it was difficult to find food. You had to travel quite far, about a 30-to 45- minute trip by car to find fresh food.

 

Unas 2009

 

 

 

3. Procedure Text

Teks prosedur sering kamu jumpai ketika presenter TV memperagakan bagaimana cara memasak makanan, cara memakai suatu peralatan, cara membuat sesuatu, cara mengoperasikan alat tertentu, cara menggunakan produk-produk tertentu, cara memelakukan pratikum, atau bagaimana cara/langkah menyelesaikan suatu pekerjaan  dan sebagainya.

 

Unsur kebahasaan                  : Present tense, kalimat perintah sering digunakan (imperative sentence). Untuk  menunjukkan urutan  digunakanlah sequencers seperti first, second,next, then,until,when,while , finally, at last.

 

Tujuan teks Procedure            : untuk memberi instruksi/ peringatan, menyatakan  langkah-langkah secara kronologis.

                                                            ( To tell the steps/ to tell how to make …)

 

Generic structure: Procedure

Stuktur generic teks Procedure terdiri dari:

 

Goal

Bagian ini mengenalkan topik dan tujuan teks secara ringkas.

Materials/ Tools

Mengenalkan bahan-bahan atau peralatan yang dipakai (tidak semua teks prosedur ada )

 

 

Steps

Disini mungkin terdiri dari satu atau beberapa paragraph berisi langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan. Untuk menunjukkan urutan digunakan sequencers seperti First, Second, Next, After that, Then, Finally.

 

 

Contoh teks Procedure

Text 1

Please observe the `Fasten your seat-belt` sign at the front of the aircraft. When the light is off you are free to move about the aircraft. If the light comes on, return to your seat and fasten your seat-belt.

 

Text 2

Have you ever got confused of how to wrap a doll or some bowless candies or chocolate? To make the gift-wrap paper, you’ll need some old newspapers, some crepe papers, bleach, cookie mold and creativity. 1-he steps are very simple. First, spread some old newspapers on a table. Put a piece of crepe paper on it. Then, dip tire bottom part of cookies mold in the bleach. Next, stamp the mold on the crepe paper and let it dry. After that, you can use the paper to wrap the present. For decoration, you can use tissue paper if you want. Finally, tie the present/the package with a piece of string or ribbon.

 

 

Text 3

How to Make a Cheese Omelet

Ingredients

 I egg, 50 g cheese, cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and a pepper.

Utensils:  Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate.

Method

a.    Crack an egg into a bowl

b.   Whisk the egg with a fork until it  is smooth

c.  Add milk and whisk well.

d.    Grate the cheese into the bowl  and stir

e.   heat the oil in a frying pan

f.   Pour the mixture in a frying pan

g.    Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns.

h.   Cook both sides.

i.   Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper.

j.    Eat while warm.

 

 

Text 4

 

EFFECTIVE MICRO ORGANISMS 4

ORGANIC FERMENTATION BACTERIA

TO INCREASE CATTLE PRODUCTIVITY

 

EM-4 is a mixture of micro-organisms that gives the benefit for cattle growth and

product.

Usage

1.    Decrease smell pollution

2.    Balance mutual micro-organisms

3.    Increase quality and quantity of cattle product

 

How to use:

1.    To get satisfying result, dissolve I cc EM-4 per litre water every day

2.    Spray 1 cc EM per litre of water every week on the floor, wall, and manure.

 

Agent: PT. Songgolangit Persada, Jakarta

Distributor : JI. Ki Hajar Dewantara 46 Jakarta

Phone : (021) 7894529

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unas 2011

 

 

 

 

 4. Descriptive Text

 

Pernahkah kamu menggambarkan bagaimana keadaan kota kelahiranmu,tempat- tempat wisata yang pernah kamu kunjungi, ruang kamar kosmu,atau ciri-ciri orang/ pacar barumu, Jatim Park, Plengkung beach, Kuta beach, Borobudur temple, The Statue of Liberty? Ketika kamu menggambarkan obyek atau orang  tentang karakternya, sifatnya, bentuknya,letaknya, penampilannya, ciri-cirinya ,maka kamu sudah memasuki ranah descriptive text.

 

Unsur Kebahasaan                 : Jenis teks ini banyak menggunakan kata kerja TO BE (am, is,are),dan kata kerja HAVE/ HAS. Juga    Introductory  “there” dan Impersonal “it”

Tujuan teks Descriptive           : untuk mengambar suatu object secara khusus.   (e.g. “My house, My bike”)

                                                            (To describe an object)

 

Generic structure: Description

Stuktur generic teks Description terdiri dari:

 

Title/ Judul

Identification

Dibagian ini kamu bisa mengungkapkan/ mengenali suatu pernyataan atau bisa juga suatu paragraph yang mengidentifikasi object yang akan kamu gambarkan.

 

 

Description

Pada bagian ini object digambarkan secara detail menurut ciri-cirinya, ukuranya, panjangnya, kekuatanya, warnanya, tingginya, kondisi lingkunganya,bentuknya,dan sebagainya .


Contoh Teks Descriptive

 Text 1

I have an alarm clock that I put on the table near my bed. It is the clock which usually helps to wake me up in the morning to do daily morning activities. Sometimes I also set it for my naps. It is important for me. Perhaps I will often wake up late if I don1t have it.

My alarm clock is very unique in appearance. The body is round in a medium size. It has glossy brownish yellow color. It is made of metals and plastics. The clock has three hands. The two, having black and green colors, indicate the hour and minutes. They move slowly. The other, which has a red color, shows the seconds. Therefore it runs the fastest of all. Twelve numbers which have black color are well-arranged in a circle on the margin of the round clock. Under the centre, there is a small hole where some small numbers can be moved by spinning a specific knob on the back.  There are other two knobs on the back that function to adjust the hands at the right positions.

Above the main body, there are two bells made of bronze. They are held by two stems of metal fastened to the body. A stick handle connects the two bells. There is also a small pin right on the top of the body between the two bells. It functions to stop the bell ringing. Besides the pin there is a small hammer to beat the bells, making rings.

The clock is very strong. Although I have dropped it several times, it still functions well. It really helps me wake up at the right time and lets me know the present time.

 

Text 2

My hotel is located in the Putri Hill area. There are other hotels in the area which are all beautiful. My hotel has fifty rooms. Ten rooms are luxurious. The rooms are air-conditioned and there is a color TV in each room. The other forty are business rooms. It means the rooms are simple, with fans and black-and-white TVs. In the luxurious rooms there are always double beds but, in the simple rooms only some have double beds. Our guests come and check in or check out at the receptionist’s desk. These people also help the guests with their needs. They can order food and the receptionists ask our restaurant to serve them. Guests can have breakfast, lunch or dinner in the room or in the restaurant. Room service is ready with orders. The receptionist can also help guests with their laundry The laundry woman will wash and iron the clothes. The room-keepers clean all the rooms every d ay. Look! Some guests are coming. The bellboys help guests with their bags. They will have a seminar tomorrow; It is in the convention hall. I’ll ask them to sit at the lounge.

 

 

 

 

 5. News items

 

News items adalah jenis teks yang memberi informasi berita tentang kejadian yang pantas/layak diberitakan. Untuk lebih mengenali jenis teks ini, kamu bisa banyak membaca berita-berita di media cetak/elektronik  seperti  surat kabar,majalah atau bahkan berita-berita di internet.

 

Tense yang digunakan   : Past Tense banyak digunakan karena teks ini berisi    berita-berita yang telah terjadi.

Tujuan teks Descriptive : untuk memberi informasi tentang suatu kejadian. (To tell a newsworthy event)

 

Generic structure: News items

Stuktur generic teks News Items terdiri dari:

 

 

Headline

Headline biasanya ditulis secara singkat in the reduced clause. Ditulis dalam Present tense

Newsworthy event (Summary of the Event)

Bagian ini berisi summary atau point-point penting dari suatu kejadian. Ditulis dalam Past Tense karena peristiwanya terjadi pada waktu yang sudah berlalu.

 

 

 

Background Event

Paragraph ini berisi tentang apa yang sesungguhnya terjadi(what), pada siapa/to whom), oleh siapa(who) dan bagaimana terjadinya(how).dimana(where),kapan terjadinya(when)

Source

Berisi komentar saksi mata, atau orang-orang yang terlibat  atas peristiwa yang disebutkan dalam Background Event.

 

Contoh Teks News item

 Text 1

PHILIPPINES : At least nine people were killed and dozens were injured when the Philippines security forces clashed with dozens of slum dwellers who resisted the tearing down of their homes in the northern province, a police commander said Tuesday.

Raul Gonzales, the police chief in the northern Cordillera area, said, that the soldiers and police officers traded gunfire with dozens of people who are illegally occupying the private land in Kalinga province.

“Our team was ambushed on their way to the community to be demolished,” said Gonzales . He added that the security only defended themselves after the residents dug foxholes and opened fire with automatic rifles.

“Nine people were killed and dozens were wounded, including 10 police officers

during almost 10 hours of fighting. We even had to evacuate some of our officers who

needed surgery to get the bullets from their bodies.”-Reuters

 

Unas 2008

 

Text 2

 

YONKERS, Nov 12th. A four alarm fire damaged 14 stores today in the Cross County

Shopping Center, the largest shopping center in Westchester County.

Two fire investigators said the blaze apparently started in a pile of cardboard cartons at the rear of a shoe store and spread through a utilities duct above the 13 other stores. The fire started at 4.40 p.m. and was declared under control at 6.14 p.m. The center is on the Cross County Parkway at the Gov. Thomas E. Dewey Thruway.

Five fire-fighters were busy at the scene. Lieut. John Carey of the Yonkers Arson Squad said the cause of the fire was under investigation.

   Unas 2010

 

 

 

6. Report Text

Ketika bertemu dengan  sesuatu yang asing,seringkali kamu tergelitik lalu bergumam ”Apa ini?( What is it?)Binatang apa ini?Termasuk apa ini?dan sebagainya”. Dari beberapa pertanyaan tersebut menuntut orang untuk memberikan definisi atau mengklasifikasikan dan mendeskripsikan hal-hal yang dimaksudkan.Kamu jadi ingin tahu data-data tentang suatu object tersebut berdasarkan temuan-temuan ilmiah atau kebenaran umum.

Pertanyaan- pertanyaan berikut inilah yang  akan dijabarkan dalam Teks Report.

Misalnya, What is mammal?, What is  money?, what is poverty?, What are pyramids? What is an iceberg?What is an oil well?

Teks  Report dapat ditemukan ,misalnya, teks tentang mamalia,vertebrata,karnivora, flora dan fauna,air, kemiskinan, kejahatan, pengangguran,perbankan, ekonomi,teknologi dan budaya.

Yang perlu kamu ketahui juga bahwa teks report tidak menjelaskan proses namun menyajikan/memaparkan sesuatu hal/object dengan lebih mendetail misalnya tentang definisinya/klasifikasinya secara umum/bukti-buktinya dan sebagainya.

 

Unsur Kebahasaan     : Jenis teks ini banyak menggunakan Present tense dan kata   kerja TO BE ( is,are), kata kerja HAVE/ HAS. Juga  Introductory “there” dan Impersonal “it”.

Tujuan teks Report     : untuk mendeskripsikan suatu hal/ object secara umum. (e.g. “ house, bike”, street singer, lion, etc)

(   To desacribe an object in general)

 

Generic structure: Report

Stuktur generic teks Report terdiri dari:

 

Title

General Classification/Definition

Bagian ini berisi pernyataan umum / klasifikasi secara  umum tentang topic yang dibicarakan.Misalnya, kamu mau mendefinisikan/mengklasifikasikan seekor harimau.Maka sebutkan termasuk jenis binatang apa harimau itu.A tiger is a wild animal. It eats meat and has four legs.  

 

 

Description

Pada bagian ini object digambarkan secara detail menurut ciri-cirinya fisiknya,kategorinya, ukuranya, panjangnya, kekuatanya, warnanya, tingginya, kondisi lingkunganya,bentuknya,kebiasaanya,tingkah lakunya dan sebagainya .

 

Contoh  teks Report

 Text 1

Snakes are reptiles. These cold-blooded creatures belong to the same group as lizards. Snakes have no legs. Their skin is glossy to reduce friction as the snakes slither along the ground.

Snakes often sun bake on rocks in the warm weather. This is because they are cold blooded. They need the sun’s warmth to heat their body up. Most snakes live in the country. Some types of snakes live in trees, some live in the water, but most live on the ground in thick, long grass and in old logs.

 

Text 2

Elephants are the largest land animals alive today. These animals have special body characteristics, among them are tusks and trunk.

Elephants’ tusks are made of a hard, white substance like bone. When an elephant is angry, its tusk can be very dangerous. The tusks of an elephant are actually its front teeth. People pay a lot of money for the ivory of an elephant’s tusk. The ivory from the tusks is made into many beautiful things.

The trunk of an elephant is a fusion of the nose and upper lip. An elephant uses    its trunk in many ways. It pulls up trees with its trunk when it wants to make a path through the jungle. It also uses its trunk to get water. The trunk can hold a lot of water, as an elephant needs to drink three hundreds pints of water every day.

 

Text 3

Ant-eaters are perhaps the most curious looking animals. Their long head and snout look like tubes and they have no teeth at all. Their front legs are very strong and armed with heavy curved claws with which they break open the nets of ants and termites and then, when the insects rush out, the ant eaters use their long, sticky tongues to lick them up at great speed. True ant-eaters are found in the swamps and forests of Central and South America. Scaly ant-eaters or pangolins are found in Africa and tropical Asia.

Insect-eating animals are sometimes called ant-eaters, although they actually belong to other groups of animals. One of them is the ant-bear, which lives on the plains of South and Central America. It has long, erect ears, but short blunt claws, and .most hairless tail and is yellow brown in color. Unlike the true ant-eaters, it has small teeth.

 

 

 

 

7. Explanation Text

 

Pernahkah kamu memikirkan penjelasan dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut ini?

How does a computer work?

 ( bagaimana cara kerja komputer?)

 

How does a lunar eclipse occur?

(Bagaimana terjadinya gerhana bula?)

 

How does it happen?

 ( Bagaimana terjadinya?)

 

How are mountains formed?

( Bagaimana proses terbentuknya gunung?)

 

How does the phone system work?

 ( Bagaimana cara kerja system telepon ?)

 

Why do some things float and others sink?

(Mengapa beberapa benda mengapung dan benda- benda yang lainya tenggelam?)

 

Why is the ozone layer thinning?

(Mengapa lapisan ozone menipis?)

 

Why does iron go rusty?

(Mengapa besi berkarat?)

 

Why do people fart?

(Mengapa orang kentut?)

 

Why is crime increasing?

(Mengapa kejahatan meningkat?)

 

Teks Explanation pada dasarnya menjabarkan pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut diatas. Jadi teks explanation memaparkan proses terjadinya suatu fenomena alam dan fenomena social.Misalnya, bagaimana terjadinya hujan/gerhana bulan/gunung meletus/ banjir/ tsunami/proses pencernaan makanan/Mengapa terjadi kemiskinan?/Kekerasan dalam rumah tangga?/ kenaikan harga –harga komoditi?dan sebagainya.

 

Unsur Kebahasaan      : Jenis teks ini banyak menggunakan Present tense ,bentuk Passive voice. Kata-kata first, then, finally juga sering dipakai untuk menjelaskan time relationships, khususnya paragrap yang  menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi. Sedangkan untuk menjelaskan cause-and-effect relationships digunakan if/ then, so, as a consequence, since, khususnya untuk paragraph yang menjelaskan mengapa sesuatu itu terjadi.

Tujuan teks Explanation   : menjelaskan tentang proses terjadinya atau terbentuknya sesuatu hal atau fenomena alam ataupun social.  (To explain how an event occurs)

 

Generic structure: Explanation

Stuktur generic teks Explanation terdiri dari:

 

General Statement about the topic

Bagian ini merupakan paragraph pembukaan yang memaparkan tentang topic teks.Kalimatnya berbentuk general statement/ pernyataan umum.(e.g. sedimentary rock is formed by the compression of layers of particles into a solid form) Atau bisa juga dalam bentuk pertanyaan retorika misalnya “ Did you know how a lunar eclipse occurs?”

 

 

Sequence of explanations

Paragrap yang menjelaskan proses terjadinya sesuatu peristiwa atau bagaimana terbentuknya sesuatu fenomena .(process of how/ why )

 

 

 

 

8. Hortatory Exposition Text

Dari media cetak atau elektronik, kamu mengenal berbagai problem/ permasalahan social,ekonomi,politik, budaya,pendidikan, teknologi,dan sebagainya. Kamu bisa memaparkan argumentasi atau pendapatmu dalam menanggapi permasalahan-permasalahan tersebut. Dari satu topic permasalahan, kamu dapat mengembangkanya menjadi beberapa tesis yang kemudian dukunglah dengan argumentasi.Lalu akhiri dengan paragraph yang menunjukkan saran-saran apa yang seharusnya dilakukan untuk mencari solusi atas masalah yang dibicarakan.

Tense yang digunakan            : Present tense  banyak digunakan karena teks jenis ini berisi informasi yang berbentuk paparan argumentasi atau pendapat dalam menanggapi suatu permasalahan.

Tujuan teks Exposition            : mengajak pembaca untuk memberikan saran-saran apa  yang seharusnya dilakukan untuk mencari solusi atas  masalah yang dibicarakan. ( To persuade the readers that something should or should  not be in the case).

 

Generic structure: Hortatory  Exposition

Stuktur generic teks Hortatory Exposition terdiri dari:

 

Thesis

Berisi paragraph pendek yang mengandung pernyataan kontroversial  sebagai tanggapan atas masalah yang muncul.

Arguments

Pada bagian ini penulis menyatakan argumentasinya berkenaan dengan thesis pada paraggrap pertama.

 

 

Recommendation

Bagian ini berisi tentang saran-saran  penulis untuk menyelesaikan persoalan yang berhubungan dengan tesis

 


 

 

Contoh Teks Hortatory Exposition

Text 1

Is it important to know what your kids are watching? Of course yes. Television can expose things you have tried to protect them from, especially violence, pornography, consumerism, etc.

A study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often causes bedtime disruption, stress, and short of sleep duration.

Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the possibility of being aggressive.

Meanwhile, many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.

Considering some facts mentioned above, protect your children with the following tips:

I. Limit television viewing to 1-2 hours each day.

2. Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their bedrooms.

3. Review the rating of TV shows that your children watch.

4. Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show.

 

   Unas 2008

 

Text 2

 

To Whom it may concern,

 

“In donesian Idol” is an annual Indonesian televised singing competition which has been airing on RCTI. Part of the Idol franchise, ‘it originated from the British reality program “Pop Idol” “Indonesian Idol” is a combination of a reality show and a talent search show. Unfortunately, instead of giving the opportunity to anyone who has talent and capable to be promoted as an idol, I find some weaknesses in this program.

Sometimes, the winner is not guaranteed to have a quality of a good singer because the winner is merely determined by public voting by phone and sms. Most of these voters do not consider the jury‘s comments on the contestant’s performance because they would prefer focusing on the contestant’s physical appearance and personality rather than his/her singing quality.

As a consequence, after the competition is over, only few of the winners get the chance to be professional singers. Why is it so? Because they don’t have great skills to be professional singers. Furthermore, most of them only have little experience in the show business, while being a professional  singers   need a long process and time.

My suggestion is that “Indonesian Idol” should not determine the winner based on the contestant’s. The singing quality of each contestant should be the first priority.

Yours truly,

 

Pinky Baboe- Semarang

 

 

 

 

 9. Analytical Exposition

 

Jenis teks yang isinya tentang informasi paparan argumentasi atau pendapat atas permasalahan yang muncul.

Tense yang digunakan            : Present tense  banyak digunakan karena teks jenis ini berisi informasi yang berbentuk paparan argumentasi atau pendapat dalam menanggapi suatu permasalahan.

Tujuan teks Exposition            : (To persuade the reader that something is an important matter.)

 

Generic structure: Analytical  Exposition

Stuktur generic teks Analytical Exposition terdiri dari:

 

Thesis

Berisi paragraph pendek yang mengandung pernyataan tanggapan atas masalah yang muncul.Disini penulis mulai menyatakan posisinya.

Arguments

Pada bagian ini penulis menyatakan argumentasinya berkenaan dengan thesis pada paraggrap pertama.

 

 

Reiteration

Bagian ini berisi pernyataan kembali posisi penulis  yang memperkuat/ mendukung pernyataannya yang tertuang dalam tesis. 

 

Text 1

In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government, state government and local governments. All of these levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.

First, the federal government is necessary for the big things. They keep the economy in order and look after things like defense.

Similarly, the state governments look after the middle sized things. For example, they look after law and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools.

Finally, local governments look after the small things. They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.

Thus, for the reason above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary.

                             Dep. Pend. Nas 2003

 

 

 

 

10.  Discussion Text

Dalam pergaulan sehari-hari bersama teman-temanmu, seringkali kamu membicarakan permasalahan social yang  hangat diperbincangkan. Beberapa topic pembicaraan yang didiskusikan bersama, misalnya tentang aborsi, minum alcohol, merokok, kenakalan remaja, penggunaan HP di sekolah, internet dan berbagai topic-topik  lainnya yang mempunyai sisi negatif dan positif atau kelebihan dan kekurangan. Itulah topic-topik pembicaraan yang tertuang dalam jenis teks discussion.

Jadi Teks discussion berisi paparan argument yang membahas suatu permasalahan social yang ditinjau dari dua sisi yang berbeda, yakni ditinjau dari sisi negative dan positif;pro dan kontra; keuntungan dan kerugian. Kemudian teks tersebut diakhiri dengan saran-saran atau rekomendasi yang terkait dengan topik pembicaraannya.

 

Ciri kebahasaan         : contrastive conjunction,untuk menghubungkan argument, misalnya however, but, yet, while, meanwhile, nevertheless,on the other hand, similarly.

Untuk mengungkapkan pandangan penulis maka kata-kata berikut sering digunakan:  think, believe,feel,hope, should, must ,hopefully,dsb.

                                                 

Tujuan teks Descriptive           : mengemukakan pendapat dari suatu topic pembicaraan.

                                                             (To present point of view (at least two) about an issue)

 

Generic structure: Discussion

Stuktur generic teks discussion  terdiri dari:

 

 

General statement about an issue

Paragraph pembuka yang berisi pernyataan tentang isu-isu sosial / pembicaraan yang actual.Sebuah gambaran tentang apa yang akan dibahas.

Argument for

Bagian ini berisi argumentasi yang mendukung /membenarkan isu social yang dinyatakan pada  paragraph awal. Disini dipaparkan point-point positif/keuntungan/ kekuatan atau kebaikannya yang mendukung isu social tersebut.

 

 

 

Argument against

Paragraph ini berisi argument yang menolak/menentang atau tidak membenarkan dari isu social yang tertuang pada awal paragraph.Disi diungkap kelemahan-kelemahan atau sisi negatifnya.

Recommendation

Berisi rekomendasi/ saran-saran penulis  yang merupakan kesimpulan yang diambil  berdasarkan argumentasi dari dua sisi yakni sisi yang mendukung atau menolak isu yang dimaksud.

 

 

Contoh Teks

 

Nuclear power is generated by using uranium, which is a metal mined in various parts of the world.  The first large-scale nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cambria, England, in 1956.

Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engines. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world’s energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It causes no pollution as you’d get when burning fossil fuels.

The advantages of nuclear is as follows:

1. It costs about the same as coal, so it’s not expensive to make.

2. It doesn’t produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it doesn’t contribute to the greenhouse effect.

3. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.

4. It produces small amounts of waste.

5. It is reliable.

On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is reliable, a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster.

People are increasingly concerned about this. In the 1990′s nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. In 2005, it was the 2nd Slowest  growing.

 

Unas 2008

Text 2

There are a lot of discussions as to whether children should be given homework or not. Some people claim that children do enough work in school already. They also argue that children have hobbies that they want to do after school, such as sports or music. A further point they make is that a lot of homework is pointless and doesn’t help the child learn at all.

However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Parents and teachers argue that it is important to find out whether children can work on their own without the support from the teacher. They say that the evening is a good time for children to sit down and think about what they have learned in school.

Furthermore they claim that the school day is too short to get anything done that needs doing and it makes sense to send home tasks like independent reading or further writing tasks that don’t need teacher’s support.

On balance, I think that some homework is a good idea but that it should only given at the weekend when children have more time.

 

Unas  2009

Text 3

There has been a great deal of discussion on the problem of abortion in this country. The  discussion includes: “Is abortion legal or illegal? Is abortion morally justified or not?”

On one hand, abortion is one of the methods of birth control. When a country faces the problems of population explosion, the government should find methods to solve it. But since no method of contraception is one hundred percent effective and successful, abortion becomes  the only way out when prevention fails.

On the other hand, abortion may cause many negative effects for women’s health.

Women risk their health and lives in bearing the operation and its consequences. The most common complications are inflammation, interruption of menstrual patterns, infertility, endometriosis, myoma of the uterus and many other kinds of ovary illness.

So far, abortions have become a dilemma for countries with a large number of citizens. On one hand, it can control the birth rate, but on the other hand, it brings terrible consequences, especially for women`s health.

 

 

 

 

 

11. Review Text

Teks review merupakan jenis teks yang memberi ulasan ataupun kritik tentang karya seperti  buku, exhibitions(pameran), konser, film,drama, bagaimana kelebihan dan kekurangannya/ plotnya/ karakternya dan pesan-pesan yang terkandung dalam cerita,keunikanya,kualitasnya  dan lain-lainya.Penulis bisa memberi ulasan, telaah, pendapat,saran ataupun perbandingan pendapat.

 

Tujuan Teks review   : mengulas suatu karya seni atau peristiwa.

                                                 (To critique or review an art of work or event for public audience.)

Unsur kebahasaan    : banyak menggunakan kalimat-kalimat panjang dan Kompleks (Complex sentences)

 

Generic structure: Review

Stuktur generic teks review  terdiri dari:

 

 

Orientation

Pengenalan karya yang akan ditulis

Interpretative recount

Rangkuman plot atau alur cerita/ content

 

 

 

Evaluation

Penilaian /interpretasi penulis terhadap karya .

Evaluative summation

Berisi rangkuman penilaian interpretasi terhadap karya tersebut.

 

 

Contoh Teks

Text 1

 

The OST (Original Soundtrack) of Brownies

          “Bisa Saja” is chosen as the first single of the album and theme song of Brownies, since the lyric reflects the story in the movie.

When Hanung Bramantyo, the director, and Dewa Budjana of Gigi chatted, Budjana expressed his interest in making a soundtrack album. Then, he recommended a few of Gigi’s songs which the producer accepted because of the combination they created with the movie.

Since Gigi can provide a variety of colors to add all kinds of musical nuances to enrich the movie, the producer deemed it unnecessary to find other musicians to complete the OST of Brownies.

It’s always fun to have piece of brownies in your mouth. However, having it in your stereo set is more entertaining. No movie is perfect without musical score, and the OST of Brownies has proved it excellently.

 

 

Text 2

 

Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest

(Adventure, 157 minutes)

 

Starring: Johnny Depp, Orlando Bloom, Keira Knightley, Bill Nighy.

Directed by: Gore Verbinski.

Released by: Walt Disney Pictures.

 

In this sequel to the 2003 highly successful film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, you can see everyone’s favourite scoundrel, Captain Jack Sparrow (the brilliant Johny Depp) trying to weasel out of paying a blood debt owed to the mythical Davy Jones, the captain of the otherworldly ship The Flying Dutchman.

Time is being his biggest enemy, and Sparrow pulls every trick he knows to find a way to escape the 100 years of servitude owed to Davy Jones. His old friends, Elizabeth Swann (Keira Knightley) and Will Turner (Orlando Bloom), are once again sucked into Sparrow’s misadventures.

The success of the first sequel relied on the simple thrill ride charm of a classic swashbuckler. Unfortunately, this second sequel over extends that charm without adding anything new other than a long, contrived and rather unnecessary plot twist.

The only true pleasurable aspect of this film is Deep’s reprise of Sparrow, which never fails to generate laughs. Without Deep, this film would have simply drowned in an ocean of redundancy.

 

Selamat Belaja! Good luck!

Latihan soal Reading : http://inggrisonline.net/soal/

 

 

 

 
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